"Naturally a masterpiece"
(and largest city)
| Official languages
|| Empordian, English,|
| Ethnic groups
|| 59.1% Pacitalian, 14.2% Iberian1|
10.2% Greek, 8.9% Romanian,
0.2% indigenous2, 7.4% other
— Prime Minister
| Semi-presidential republic and parliamentary democracy organised|
as a unitary state
Franchessa Marconi (PV)
Archetenia Nera (FPD)
~ 18-24 AD
21st November 1503
— 2013 estimate
— 2009 census
372,208,454 (115.1 per sq km)
354,865,830 (109.72 per sq km)
|GDP (PPP, 2012 estimate)|
| — Total
| $33,875 billion|
|GDP (Nominal, 2012 estimate)|
| — Total
| $26,184 billion|
|PDAS rating (2013)||A+ (97th percentile)|
|HDI rating (2013)||0.978 (very high)|
|Income equality (2011)||33.9 (medium)|
|Currency||1 douro (RPD) = 100 fouta|
|Time zone||AOTC +0200 and +0300|
|Time format||24-hour clock (00.00-23.59)|
|Drives on the||Right|
|Internet TLD||.pc, .rp|
| 1 People of Spanish, Empordian, Basque and Portuguese descent.|
2 People of Mayan, Tecuani and Komer'xe descent.
Pacitalia (pronounced /ˌpæːsɪtˈɑːliʌ/), officially the Pacitalian Republic (Pacitalian: la Repubblica Pacitaliana; Empordian: la república Pacitalià; Spanish: República Pacitaliana), is a country in southeastern Atlantian Oceania, occupying central Foringana and over 3,600 islands in the Gulf of Pacitalia (to the continent's east) and the Carcossian Sea (to its west).
The country shares land borders with Scandonia to the north and northwest, Port Hawthorne to the north and northeast, Drakia to the south and southeast. Falcania and Hypocria are situated to the west across the Carcossian Sea, and the Pazhujeb islands of Šede and Fajr lie to the south in the Secocia Sea. Pacitalia's size, and its possession of numerous islands and rugged shoreline, gives it the longest salt-water coastline in Atlantian Oceania at 440,163 km.
A period of substantial immigration to Pacitalia began in the early 20th century, led by an influx of ethnic Iberians, Greeks and Romanians that numbered in the tens of millions. In the years that followed, the country experienced a so-called Golden Age characterised by mass industrialisation, rapid economic growth and the development of a stable middle class by the end of the 1960s. A "second wave" of immigration began in the late 1970s, primarily involving refugees and/or asylum seekers, and people of African, Asian and Middle Eastern descent. Pacitalia is now home to large Persian and Turkish communities, and, as of 2011, over five percent of the country's population is Muslim.
The development of Pacitalia's shipping and transportation, agriculture, manufacturing, finance and banking, and natural resources sectors made the country an international economic power and a target of foreign direct investment. Today the country ranks as the wealthiest and most industrialised country in Atlantian Oceania and has the region's highest human development index. Pacitalia's currency, the douro, is a reliable and highly stable benchmark currency. Pacitalia is one of Atlantian Oceania's largest net exporters. It has the region's largest financial sector and possesses the region's largest known reserves of oil, natural gas and potash. Pacitalia maintains a liberal economy and endorses a free market.
After several decades embracing minimalism in government, as well as a predisposition towards classical liberalism and conservatism, Pacitalia's population has become markedly more secular, socially progressive and economically moderate. Past governments have already enacted sweeping social changes that defy the country's long and complex relationship with Christianity — notably the legalisation of clinical abortion in 1968, the expansion of marital benefits and adoption rights to same-sex couples in 1996, the legalisation of same-sex marriage in 2002, and the legalisation of assisted suicide ("ethical euthanasia") in 2008. Pacitalia abolished the death penalty in early 2009 following a referendum on the issue.
Pacitalia's government is a centre-right coalition, following the country's most recent parliamentary elections in 2011. The country has shifted somewhat toward a Nordic welfare model, with universal healthcare, and a comprehensive social assurance system. Recently, Pacitalian social policy has aimed to use the country's wealth to eliminate tuition fees in higher education and achieve carbon neutrality. However, a number of wealth-redistribution policies from the Brunate government have been rolled back or reduced in scope under the Nera administration.
The country is seen as a leader in gender and racial equality, and is a leading contributor of aid to the developing world. Pacitalia enjoys a global reputation both as a haven for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and queer individuals and as a country where they enjoy inalienable rights, freedoms and protections. As a result, it is considered part of the Queer Belt.
Pacitalia is a unitary state with a significant regional governance structure. The country is divided into 16 regions ("apertures"), which further subdivide as 96 "departments". Unlike other unitary states that have trended toward devolution, Pacitalia does not have political subdivisions officially based on language or ethnicity. It is a semi-presidential republic with a parliamentary democracy, and an Archonate who serves as its head of state. The government is led by a prime minister, who, in nearly all cases, will come from the political party with the greatest number of seats in the lower house of the parliament. Pacitalia is also a multilingual country, with four official languages at the national level.
- Main article: History of Pacitalia
|GDP (PPP)||$33.9 trillion|
|GDP (Nominal)||$26.2 trillion|
| GDP per capita
|| $91,011 (PPP)|
|Unemployment rate||2.43 percent (June 2012)|
| GDP growth
|| 2.32 percent (Q4 FY2012-13)|
2.05 percent (FY2011-12)
|CPI inflation||1.71 percent (FY2012-13)|
|Poverty||0.91 percent (end of 2012, est.)|
|Household net worth||$ 80.15 trillion NSD (January 2011)|
Pacitalia has a capitalist, market economy driven by high levels of international trade and an extensive financial sector, an abundance of natural resources, highly-developed infrastructure, traditional laissez-faire economic and monetary policy, and very high productivity and efficiency in its labour force. Calculations of Pacitalia's gross domestic product (GDP) vary depending on the source and the measurements used; the country's GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP) averages approximately $30.5 trillion NSD, while its nominal GDP is estimated at a much higher average of $35.3 trillion NSD.
Measurements of the per-capita gross domestic product of Pacitalians also varies within a range of $76,000 and $97,000 NSD as of 2010. Pacitalia has the highest real economy per-capita GDP in the Atlantian Oceanian region, and depending on the data source, between the largest and third-largest national GDP in the region.
In PPP terms, Pacitalia's national GDP accounts for 91 percent of the GDP of the Foringanan continent as of 2010, even though Pacitalia only accounts for about 79 percent of the continent's population.
The country is one of the region's largest importers but is the single largest exporter of goods in Atlantian Oceania, both to regional and external markets. As a result, Pacitalia is (and has historically been) one of the region's largest net exporters. Exports per capita are, compared to the rest of the region, above-average.
As of 2010, the private sector accounts for 79.7 percent of the Pacitalian economy, with government and other public entities constituting the remaining 20.3 percent. Pacitalia's economy is extensively developed and post-industrial, and the services sector contributes 67.2 percent of GDP. Pacitalia remains an industrial power, however, with significant heavy industry and manufacturing operations concentrated in Pomentane, Antigonia and Alt-Empordà. Additionally, Pacitalia's primary sector continues to perform very well, largely due to high international demand for the country's petroleum, agricultural and mineral products. Primary sector and resource industries account for just over one-tenth of GDP; secondary sector industries, like manufacturing and food or textile processing, contribute 15.1 percent of GDP. Pacitalia's quaternary sector is larger than comparative sectors in other developed countries, accounting for the remaining 7.4 percent of GDP.
Pacitalia's leading business field by gross business receipts is the retail industry, followed by the food service industry. By net income, the leading field(s) are manufacturing and/or consumer goods production, depending on the measurement. Chemical production, petrochemical production and automobile production are the three largest manufacturing industries. The agriculture industry remains remarkably large for a postindustrial economy, and still accounts for 5.3 percent of GDP. Pacitalia is the world's largest producer and exporter of unprocessed wine grapes, kola nuts, and pure and processed palm products, and one of the largest producer-exporters of citrus fruits, soybeans, corn, coffee, tea, tobacco, cotton, hemp and seafood. Pacitalia is one of the world's largest exporters of alcoholic beverages, specifically wine and spirits. The country's beer-making industry, mainly craft brewing, has grown exponentially in the last ten years.
Mandragora serves as Pacitalia's financial capital and as the centre of an immense financial services, banking and commerce industry. Pacitalia's currency, the douro, is an international benchmark currency with a core exchange value nearly triple that of the universal standard dollar (NSD), and is one of the most frequently used currencies in international banking and finance transactions as well as on global exchange markets. The PAX800 Mandragora Composite Exchange is Atlantian Oceania's largest stock exchange by monetary volume; Mandragora's foreign currency exchange is also the largest by the same measurement as well as by traded volume. Banco di Mandragora is Pacitalia's largest chartered commercial bank, and its total assets and market capitalisation are greater than the national gross domestic products of nearly three-quarters of the countries in Atlantian Oceania. Abrutina, Acis, AeroPacitalia, Artemis Republican, Bluefox, Integral/Borsa, Pink Bunny Cola, Synergent, tnpSonera and Vincora are among the most recognisable Pacitalian brands and companies.
As of the end of 2009, Pacitalia's labour force was estimated at 287,234,000 people, or 80.94 percent of the census-registered population. Under Pacitalian law, the labour force is defined as "reasonably employable" individuals between the ages of 15 (the age a person can seek paid employment) and 70 (the national retirement age). The unemployment rate as of the beginning of 2010 is 2.6 percent. Of those employed, 78 percent have jobs in the services sector. Approximately 26 percent of workers are unionised; most of them belong to a handful of labour unions such as the Conagresso Generale del Lavoro (CGL) or the Sindicato Repubblicana Pansociale (SRP). A "full-time" working week in Pacitalia is legally defined as anywhere between 40 and 48 hours of paid labour. Employers have the right to terminate the employment of anyone who cannot work more than eight hours per week (within reason).
The Pacitalian workforce is generally highly educated and highly skilled. Pacitalia's hourly productivity ranks among the highest in Atlantian Oceania and also among the world's industrialised economies. Overall labour productivity is also very high, as labour per annum for the average Pacitalian grew by 188 hours between 1980 and 2010. However, Pacitalians enjoy some of the highest amounts of annual paid vacation time in the world, with an average of 88.6 days (excluding weekends, holidays and other observances) per year.
Corporate and industrial tax rates are average compared to other countries. Property taxes are above-average. Pacitalia levies considerable environmental protection tariffs on individual consumers, business and industry. The most notable of these taxes is the Supplementary Fuel Tariff (SFT), which is charged on transport ticket prices, monthly water, energy and utilities usage, heating fuels, household waste output and gasoline and motor fuel purchases. Industry, business and individual consumers also pay a 9.6-percent value-added tax on certain goods and services called the Appended Consumption Rate (ACR), which is built into all prices where the tax applies.
Income and human development
According to the Republican Statistics Agency (RSA), in 2009, the median annual household income before tax in Pacitalia was 33,015 doura (Đ), or about $104,300 NSD (as of 2010). Household income is highest in Capitale (Đ 60,937), Beracanto (Đ 58,778) and Pungaria (Đ 55,911), and is lowest in Franconia (Đ 20,956), Dossavora (Đ 20,137) and Palatinia (Đ 18,022). Levels of gross income are comparably higher than in other developed countries but are offset by an above-average cost of living, and further cut down by taxation on earnings and consumption. Timiocato, Pacitalia's capital, has, as an example, been commonly ranked as the most expensive city in Atlantian Oceania in which to live.
Poverty rates have decreased since 1960, to a point where Pacitalia has one of the lowest overall levels of poverty in Atlantian Oceania. As of the 2009 census, 2.9 million, or 0.8 percent of Pacitalians, were living below the national poverty threshold. The threshold is defined as an annual income of Đ 5,087 or less (about $16,000 NSD).
Seniors, whose income is supplemented by public and private pension systems, and dependents, such as youth workers earning low wages through part-time employment, are not counted in the poverty statistic. It is estimated that, as of 2015, 28.6 percent of Pacitalians will spend at least one year of their adult life under the poverty line. Comparably speaking, the same statistic estimated that 36.3 percent of Pacitalians would experience at least one year of poverty during adulthood as of 1995, which supports other evidence demonstrating a drop in poverty.
Income inequality has decreased considerably over the last 50 to 60 years, largely because of both the reduction of overall poverty and the establishment of an affluent middle class that possesses an above-average proportion of the country's wealth. The introduction of explicit gender parity laws and strengthened workplace equality legislation has essentially eliminated income gaps; however, because of self-employed workers and non-compliant employers, female workers made 98.8 percent of what their male counterparts earned as of 2007. Despite the remaining inequalities, Pacitalia's gender-based income gap of 1.2 percent is one of the lowest among industrialised countries.
In 2009, 4.3 percent of households earned gross annual income exceeding Đ 100,000 (about $320,000 NSD). A further 9.2 percent of households had gross annual income between Đ 75,000 and Đ 100,000. The lion's share of Pacitalian households, approximately 70.6 percent, earned gross annual income between Đ 25,000 and Đ 75,000 in 2009. The remaining 15.9 percent of households earned below Đ 25,000. In dollar terms, Pacitalia has 343 billionaires and 148,179 millionaires, who collectively hold about 26 percent of Pacitalia's household wealth as of 2010. Measured another way, the top 1% of the adult population controls 32.8 percent of net wealth.
As a highly developed country, Pacitalia is usually in the top tier of various human development indices. The Pacitalian government's own human development rating system, the Development and Advancement System, rates Pacitalia as being in the 97th percentile of development (an A-plus grade). Pacitalia's most recent Human Development Index rating was 0.996 ("very high"). Countries which publish their own HDI rankings using modified calculation methods have created rating disparities. One HDI ranking in 2008 rated the country as low as 0.968. Pacitalia's income inequality index rating is 37.1 as of 2010.
In Pacitalia, income tax rates are lower compared to other countries. Individuals earning an annual income less than Đ 5,087 — a rate that also serves as the national poverty threshold — are exempt from paying income tax. Above that amount, tax brackets vary from seven percent to 23 percent based on annual income. As a unitary state, apertures and departments do not have the authority to collect income tax and, instead, receive proportionate levels of national tax revenue. Additionally, departments and municipalities earn most of their revenue from property taxes.
In line with its wealth and level of development, Pacitalia has the most extensively developed public and private transportation infrastructure in Atlantian Oceania. A number of the region's leading ports are located in the country.
Pacitalia leads the region in several categories. It has the largest railway network in Atlantian Oceania, with well over 300,000 km of electrified rail. The country also has the most extensive high-speed rail network in the region with the fastest average passenger service. In addition, the country also boasts the most extensively developed municipal rail service in Atlantian Oceania — every city and municipality with more than 500,000 people has some form of light-rail or metro service. Regional and national rail services are provided by the state-owned Società Ferroviaria della Repubblica (SFR), though some exceptions exist, such as in Empordia.
The autostrade network is Pacitalia's superhighway network, a national system of limited-access roadways that, in some places, carry as many as 30 lanes of traffic. Pacitalia's road network bears 840 million trips per day and is directly or indirectly responsible for 48 percent of daily intranational and international trade and transactions.
In order, the Saronno Superport, the Port of Timiocato and the Port of Athalone are Pacitalia's three largest seaports. The Rio Timiocato and the Trans-Foringanan Canal, which separate Trasteveria and Drakia from "mainland" Pacitalia, form a crucial sea link between the Carcossian Sea, to Pacitalia's west, and the Foringanan Sea to the east. The Trans-Foringanan Canal is one of the largest engineering projects in Pacitalian history. Built between 1953 and 1961, it created a man-made link between Pacitalia's eastern coast and the Rio Timiocato, and provides shipping vessels a much shorter route through, rather than around, Foringana.
Timiocato Santo Ragazzo International Airport (TSR) is the largest and busiest airport in Pacitalia and the busiest airport in Atlantian Oceania by both passenger and aircraft movements. TSR handles an average of just over three billion passengers (almost ten times Pacitalia's permanent population) and 33.2 million aircraft movements per year. Consequently, security and other operating costs at the airport, excluding all other airports in Pacitalia, total almost five percent of the country's GDP. TSR occupies a land area equal to that of the city of Cerignola, in Sambuca, which is home to approximately 430,000 people.
As of 2011, Pacitalia generates over four-fifths of its domestic energy output from sustainable and/or renewable resources. The Directorate of Energy and Natural Resources estimated that by 2010, extensive public and private investment in sustainable electricity generation and skills re-training had created over 160,000 new short- and long-term jobs to replace a loss of approximately 76,000 positions at "dirty power" generating operations.
Pacitalia produces 81 percent of its power from environmentally friendly or renewable sources — 23 percent from hydroelectric generation, 22 percent from wind generation, 18 percent from geothermal sourcing and 15 percent from solar power stations. The remaining 19 percent of Pacitalia's power generation comes from coal- and oil-fired power plants and from nuclear power stations.
As a consistent surplus producer of electricity, Pacitalia is a net exporter of bulk power, especially to its Foringanan neighbours. Pacitalian electricity exports were valued at $54.4 billion in 2009 — just shy of 0.2 percent of GDP.
Pacitalia's last census was commissioned in 2009 and counted 354,865,830 citizens and permanent residents, and a further 17,477,329 non-permanent residents, including post-secondary students, long-term visitors and migrants or refugees with pending legal status. Pacitalia's permanent population reached just over 359 million in 2010 and is estimated by the Republican Statistics Agency to be about 362.6 million as of 2011. It is estimated the national population will reach 375 million by 2020. The next census will be done in 2012.
Pacitalia's population density, at 112/km², ranks it second of the five countries in Foringana, behind Port Hawthorne (which is a city-state), but ahead of Scandonia, Drakia and Nova Prosperitas. The most populated areas of Pacitalia tend to be along its coastline, though three notable exceptions exist — Nortopalazzo, with 16.5 million people, is Pacitalia's second-largest urban centre; Mandragora, with just under nine million people, is Pacitalia's financial capital, and Monterio, with 6.5 million residents, is the largest urban centre in northeastern Pacitalia.
The average life expectancy in Pacitalia is 83.3 years for females and 82.1 years for males.
A mass period of immigration brought millions of new people to Pacitalia in the twentieth century, most of them of Greek, Romanian, Turkish and Persian descent, but also including more Iberians and northern Europeans.
In 1900, Pacitalia's census registered 88,715,377 people. In the twenty years that followed, Pacitalia's population grew steadily, but this growth was reflective of a homogeneous population and a lack of immigration. The country grew 6.1 percent to 94,128,241 people in the ten years to 1910, and another six percent from 1910 to 1920, with just under 100 million people in Pacitalia at the beginning of the 1920s.
Mass immigration to Pacitalia started in 1922 following a change in government policy. Previous governments, mostly Conservative, had failed to address, or ignored, the need for immigration to build the economy and open Pacitalia to the world. The government of Marco Sant'Allardo, of the Pacifist Party, enacted the Immigration Act, 1921 which increased annual quotas from 275,000 to seven million new immigrants per year and placed emphasis on allowing families, skilled workers, and those with a university-level education, to migrate to Pacitalia in an expedient manner.
The change had significant implications for Pacitalia's population growth — in the next ten years, Pacitalia's population would grow explosively, reaching 121 million by 1930. In ten short years, Pacitalia's permanent population had grown by 22 million people. To compare, the country's population had risen by only 11.9 million in twenty years between 1900 and 1920.
As the massive wave of new migrants continued, Pacitalia's population rapidly crescendoed, hitting 161 million by 1940, 216 million by 1950 and 267 million by 1960. Timiocato, Pacitalia's capital, was the third-largest city behind Saronno and Sambuca at the turn of the 20th century. It was one of the biggest beneficiaries of the population boom, growing from a population of 3.2 million in 1910 to become the largest city in the country by 1960, with over 20 million people in its metropolitan area.
Pacitalia is characterised by highly populated urban areas, a result of the wave of immigration in the mid-20th century. Today eight of Pacitalia's conurbations have more than five million residents in their core municipality, and 18 have over one million. Timiocato, the capital and largest city in Pacitalia, has 24 million residents in the city proper as of 2009, and almost 40 million in its metropolitan area (which is essentially coterminous with the boundaries of the Capitale aperture).
- See more: List of the 100 largest municipalities in Pacitalia, List of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Pacitalia
|Largest cities in Pacitalia|
|Data taken from the 2009 Republican Census|
Prior to the 20th century, the country was dominated by ethnic Pacitalians and Iberians (in Empordia and Margheria) and was considered extremely homogeneous. Today, the republic is a multicultural and multi-ethnic state. Just under three in five Pacitalians is ethnically Pacitalian (59.1 percent of the national population). Iberians (people of Spanish, Empordian, Basque and Portuguese descent) contribute 14.2 percent of the population. When considered separately, Empordians make up 6.8 percent, Spanish ("Margherians") 5.9 percent, and Basque and Portuguese less than one percent each. One in ten Pacitalians is of Greek descent, and people of Romanian descent contribute 8.9 percent of the permanent population. The remaining 7.6 percent of the population is split among over 250 other ethnic distinctions.
Culture and society
Pacitalia is famous for its natural beauty and innovations in the field of technology, but it is the cultural and artistic realms that have earned Pacitalia its worldwide reputation as a unique cultural experience. Pacitalia remains a nation of philosophers, scientists, musicians, artists, leaders and a diversity of ideas.
Despite a laid-back joie de vivre, Pacitalia can often display overarching formality and puts a large emphasis on cultural ceremony and on nationalism and patriotism. Pacitalians consider it extremely important to be patriotic. Personal wealth and accomplishment are important in this capitalist society but, ironically, not necessarily a symbol of status. In fact, in many ways it is considered bad taste to discuss how much money a person earns. Personal freedom is highly cherished in Pacitalia and has resulted in an open, tolerant society that is always vocally defended. Pacitalians are generally seen by foreigners as intimidating and brash because of their tendency to be direct, sarcastic and lacking inhibition.
Pacitalians judge their quality of life by how enjoyable it is more than by the acquisition of wealth and status. Music and food play an integral role in Pacitalian life. Pacitalian folk music focuses heavenly on acoustic guitar, percussion, vocalisations and dancing accompaniment. Flamenco, which captures all of these aspects perfectly and gracefully, is the national music and dance, and the heart and soul of many social clubs. Marsa, a section of Pacitalia's largest city, Timiocato, is heavily populated with gypsies, or Roma, and is famous for its melancholy folk musical style.
|Detailed references located at: Pacitalian language, Pacitalian cuisine|
Holidays and customs
The following is a list of the major statutory (non-religious) holidays in Pacitalia.
|Date||English Name||Pacitalian Name|
|1st January||New Year's Day||Recontato d'anno|
|14th February||St. Valentine's Day||Giorno Santo Valentino|
|21st June||First day of summer||Solare medo|
|2nd August||Children's Day||Giorno degli juventi|
|Second Monday in September||War Remembrance Day||Giorno di memoriali la guerra|
|21st November||Pacitalia Day||Anca repubblicana|
|25th December (even years only)||Christmas Day||Reformato felixas|
|31st December||New Year's Eve||Deposato d'anno|
The modern Pacitalian constitution vigorously defends the individual citizen's right to freedom of religion and conscience.
Following the Declaration of Faith in 575, Christianity was the official state religion in Pacitalia during the period in which it was a kingdom. After the formation of the Pacitalian Federation in 1284, Pacitalia instituted a separation between church and state and has adhered to it ever since.
Demographically, Pacitalia was once almost universally Catholic but two factors have changed this: one, mass immigration (as mentioned above), which brought large numbers of Greeks and Romanians to Pacitalia, creating a significant Orthodox minority; and, two, a deep shift towards secularisation, which occurred largely in the last 10-15 years. Forty-three percent of Pacitalians identified as Catholic in the 2009 census, and 19 percent claimed adherence to Orthodoxy. Ten percent of Pacitalians identify with other major world religions; most of these people are Muslim.
Pacitalia is the only country that celebrates Christmas every second year rather than every year. It has done this since at least the 15th century. Christmas is celebrated in the even years; therefore, Christmas will next be observed in 2012.
Languages are a large part of Pacitalian life because of the cultural diversity the country contains. English is a learned language, not native, but it is an official language as the government does most of its business in it and nearly all of the people speak it. Pacitalian is the only native official language, in which, like English, nearly 100% of Pacitalians speak it. 24% can speak Greek, 18% can speak Romanian, 12% can speak Spanish and 3% can speak Turkish. A majority of the citizens are trilingual to some extent.
Pacitalian interest in sport has been high since the nation itself came into existence. Early forms of sport faded away to be replaced by modern sports like football, gridball, handball, basketball, baseball, rugby, ice hockey, cricket, auto racing and golf. The Pacitalian rugby, basketball, handball and football teams consistently compete well amongst the other international squads, which has helped secure Pacitalia's place as one of the greater sporting nations in the world.
Pacitalia's most notable title victories in football were in the Atlantian Oceanian Confederation of Association Football Cup. The Blue Foxes are a national institution, thanks in large part to the country's obsession with the sport, and have won Atlantian Oceania's regional championship a record eight times.
Politics and government
Pacitalian law is founded on a civil code for individuals and a separate code of laws for organisations, business entities and corporations. The basic civil law of Pacitalia revolves around a "law of persons" (Lex personae), a "law of things" (Lex res), and a document of "issues common to both parts" (Documentum causarum partes communis, or DCPC for short).
Pacitalians are also guaranteed their rights and freedoms by a written constitution of liberties, the Carta Proposera di Libertà (the Proposal of Liberties).
The highest courts of law in the country are the National Appellate Court and Pacitalia's primary court of rule, the National Superior Court.
Suffrage and age of consent
Universal suffrage is granted to adults 16 years of age or older. Persons 16 years of age may also purchase alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. For the consumption of alcohol, the age of majority has been lowered to 14 years, or 12 with direct parental supervision. The low ages of consent for alcohol consumption and purchase are a direct result of cultural influence and tradition. Wine and spirits have always been an integral part of Pacitalian cuisine and their introduction to young adults and adolescents has always been considered a rite of passage.
The age of consent for sexual activity is 14 years.
|Prime Minister||Archetenia Nera|
|Deputy Prime Minister||Adriun Vall i Bernám|
|Speaker of the Constazione||Melina Samaras|
|Agustinate of Finance||Alexandre Berdaguer|
|Central bank governor||Domenica Ferreneta|
|Chief Magistrate||Tiberio Argento|
|Detailed references located at: Carta Proposera di Libertà, Pacitalian nationality law|
Politics at the national level in Pacitalia take place within the framework of a unitary semi-presidential republic, whose laws originate through a unique combination of the principles of parliamentary, representative and direct democracy. Many of Pacitalia's political conventions demonstrate the country's strong identification with its Roman heritage.
The Archonate is the head of state, a position akin to that of a strong presidency. The position is elected through two-stage runoff but if a candidate earns more than 50.01 percent of the votes in the first round of balloting a second round is not required. Additionally, there is an equally influential, but essentially subordinate, legislative assembly, led by a prime minister. He/she is the head of the government and, by convention, is the leader of the political party or group with the greatest number of seats following an election. The prime minister and the legislative assemblies are elected separately of the archonate but report to him/her and are subject to dissolution at his word. The government is elected through the MMP proportional representation system.
The archonacy position is far from ceremonial. He/she promulgates laws passed in the assemblies, but at his/her discretion. He/she also ensures oversight of the constitution and ensures it is being followed in government. The archonate may refer, to referendum, certain policies or laws on which he/she is normally obliged to assent. The archonate, as head of state, also represents the nation abroad, removing the traditional role of the 'foreign Agustinate' from the cabinet of the prime minister. As a result, the prime minister is permitted to advise the archonate to advance his/her government's interests abroad when the archonate conducts state visits. However, the appointment of ambassadors, establishment of envoys, and most bilateral and multilateral diplomatic work remains a responsibility of the Agustinate of International Relations.
The archonate is also commander-in-chief of the Pacitalian Defence Forces but cannot actively engage them in conflict without the consent of the legislative assemblies and the PDF's chiefs of staff, which advise the archonate. He/she also reads the session speeches of prime ministers at the opening of parliamentary seasons.
Pacitalia subdivides into 16 apertures (Pacitalian: aperturi). Each aperture is governed by a 15-member regional council consisting of a president elected by simple plurality, as well as 14 other representatives elected through an at-large system. Elections are held for these councils every two years, usually in late fall. Each aperture further divides into six departments (departamenti) or 96 in total.
- By default, this table sorts apertures by population. The listed area is total (both land and water).
|Pop. rank||Area rank||Name||Seat (capital)||Largest city||Population (2009)||Area (km2)|
Pacitalia's 96 departments each elect one Senator; thus, the number of senators in Pacitalia at the national level corresponds to the number of departments. Each department is governed by a seven-member departmental council, consisting of a president elected by simple plurality, as well as six representatives elected on an at-large system. As of 2009, the average department has about 3.7 million people — the most populated department is Nortopalazzo (Antigonia), with 19.6 million people, while the least populated is Lampedusa (Rossopunia), with only 355,000 people.
|Alt-Empordà||Abranca—Pau||Belamontes||La Seu d'Aigues||Potense—Ferimas d'Eu||Sobregats||Xabier—Fernàn|
|Antigonia||Abranessa||Farronia Bassa||Farronia Supra||Nortopalazzo||Sevampina||Tevvossora|
|Baix-Empordà||Bergamès–Nord||Bergamès—Pèra||Capet—Taüne||La Roset||Sant Luca||Vall d'Afit|
|Capitale||Amarchi||Capitale Nazionale||Fiordigona||San Matteo—Anchè||Timiocato Centrale||Valle d'Astra|
|Dossavora||Albacate—Meriano||Argazali||Corsa Negra||Porto Bardo||Sampodoria||Tivuntamo|
|Margheria||Ampoticena||Argostena—Palacio||Ciudad de Monterio||Roquereda—Frontera||Toro Negro||Veracruzana|
|Trasteveria||Acqua di Fiche||Campofele||Capagatta||Marche dell'Orienta||Platinera||Visconta—Romagne|
This section lists parties with representation in the national parliament following national elections in November 2011. Seat counts are as of December 2011.
- Party leader: Archetenia Nera, since 10th December 2006
- Ideology: Fiscal conservatism, social liberalism, progressivism, pragmatism, libertarianism
- Party leader: Gabrielo Brunate, since 31st December 2008
- Ideology: Environmentalism, green capitalism, libertarianism
- Party leader: Jávier Grandinetti, since 1st February 2007
- Ideology: Socialism, state capitalism, and trade and labour unionism
- Party leader: Adriun Vall i Bernám, since 8th November 2007
- Ideology: Social liberalism, economic liberalism, Third Way, Empordian autonomy
- 2 of 1,099 seats in the Constazione
- Party leader: Tempesta Márquez, since 24th April 2007
- Ideology: Margherian nationalism and independence, democratic socialism
- 1 of 1,099 seats in the Constazione
- Party leader: Vincenzo Promarche, since 18th May 2009
- Ideology: Fiscal conservatism, social conservatism, Christian democracy
Pacitalia fills a key role in the global political economy. It is both a regional and an international power, with significant economic, military, diplomatic, social, cultural and political influence. In several instances, it has the ability and the necessary influence to drive reforms in the domestic and foreign policy of other countries.
In recognition of Pacitalia's influence, most nations in Atlantian Oceania have formal ties with the republic, as do numerous extra-regional states. Timiocato, Pacitalia's capital, hosts 423 separate diplomatic missions, the largest concentration of embassies and missions in the region. Additionally, most major cities with at least 500,000 residents are home to consulates- or delegations-general from foreign countries, autonomous regions, administrative subdivisions that have an economic or political interest in Pacitalia, and, notably, also from ethnic groups. Timiocato is also the seat of numerous intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations and has the highest concentration of lobbyists, both overall and per-capita, in Atlantian Oceania.
Pacitalia is an active member — and, in most cases, a co-founding signatory — of several key international alliances, such as the Organisation of Maritime Powers, the Union of World Powers and the Knootian International Stabilisation Treaty, among several others. The republic's departure from the Woodstock Pact was seen as one of the major reasons for the alliance's eventual demise, as several other member states subsequently diminished their roles in the pact or quit the alliance all together as a result of Pacitalia's exit.
Pacitalian government officials — particularly the archonate (head of state), the prime minister (head of government), and the country's foreign minister (titled the Agustinate of International Relations) — are generally given respect of record by regional and international governments and media, who tend to perceive them as having the expertise, authority and political ability to steer international policy and influence global relations.
The country has also been a leading player in various multilateral talks aimed at resolving economic, military or diplomatic disputes. Pacitalia's role as a major power in Atlantian Oceania was cemented during Operation Galactica, in which Pacitalian officials led talks aimed at defusing the bitter conflict between members of two rival alliances. The success of that intervention has resulted in an unprecedented lasting peace in a region prone to dispute.
Pacitalia's currency, the douro, has historically boosted its global economic influence, alongside the country's wealth of natural resources and its diversified and highly developed national economy. The country is perceived as an extremely stable and reliable place to invest, with only a handful of economic downturns in its history, plus a highly-educated and well-trained labour force and limited public-sector intervention in economic affairs. Furthermore, Pacitalia is almost universally seen as having the largest and most powerful economy in Atlantian Oceania, a characteristic that deeply influences foreign perception of the country.
As an internationalist state, Pacitalia maintains several strong bilateral relationships. Within Atlantian Oceania, Pacitalia enjoys strong ties with its immediate neighbours in Foringana — Drakia, Nova Prosperitas, and Scandonia — with which Timiocato has actively pursued economic integration and political reform, with the ultimate aim of creating a single, streamlined economic bloc on the continent. Also within the region, Pacitalia has historically had strong ties with other liberal democratic states like Sarzonia, Pacifica, Krytenia, and Bazalonia, as well as with authoritarian states or dictatorships such as Starblaydia and Hypocria.
Pacitalia's strongest ties outside Atlantian Oceania are with its strongest allies, Hamptonshire and Oceania. While the influence and activism of the other two powers has diminished in recent years, the three states maintain extensive mutual defence, economic and stabilisation agreements. Other nations with which Pacitalia has long had positive relations are Knootoss, Kelssek, Ariddia, Praetonia, Willink and Isselmere-Nieland.
Pacitalia occupies most of central Foringana, southeastern Atlantian Oceania's principal landmass. It is south and southeast of Scandonia, south and southwest of Nova Prosperitas and northwest of Drakia. Pacitalia is the anchoring nation of the continent and the dominant occupant of the continental landmass.
The total area of Pacitalia is 4,136,492 sq km, making it one of the ten largest countries in Atlantian Oceania by area. Of the total, 3,234,400 sq km is land, and the remaining part, 902,092 sq km, is water.
Pacitalia has three direct land borders — a 1,482km frontier with Scandonia, a 988km border with Nova Prosperitas, and a 515km boundary with Drakia. The republic also has maritime borders with Nova Prosperitas and Drakia.
The landmass of the country is bisected — with the bulk of Pacitalia's island possessions to the west and its mainland to the east — by the Carcossian Fault, a highly active fault line that produces severe earthquakes. Pacitalia's most recent major earthquake was the 2009 Amalfian earthquake that killed 11,734 people and displaced over a million more. Earthquakes are arguably Pacitalia's most prescient and recurrent natural disaster.
Pacitalia's geography is highly diverse and varies from region to region.
The mainland is dominated by the Serrado Pacitaliana, the principal mountain range in Pacitalia, which runs all the way from Pacitalia's northern frontier into Drakia. It is nicknamed il vertebraie or la spina (both meaning "the spine") and features jagged high peaks that have been subject to heavy glacial processes over their existence. The Serrado is the major dictator of weather, climate and environment on both its leeward and windward faces.
The country is also home to three other mountain ranges:
- the Transfranconian range, which extends east from the Serrado to the Gulf of Pacitalia and delineates the border between the apertures of Margheria and Franconia;
- further south, the Cisfranconian range, which also extends east from the Serrado and ends about 150km south of Positano, delineating much of Franconia's southern and eastern borders with Beracanto and Provencia, respectively, and;
- the Empordian range, which extends west from the Serrado and essentially bisects the two Empordian apertures, and is host to drastic geographic features that are, like the Serrado, also the result of glacial processes.
Pacitalia's highest peak (at 5,626 metres above sea level) is Monte Parnasso, in northeastern Beracanto, approximately equidistant between Mandragora and Murano (on the Provencian coast). It is part of the Cisfranconian range.
Weather and climate
Pacitalia's distinct and varied geography creates diverse climatic conditions in the country.
Empordia is Pacitalia's most climatically diverse region, with varying amounts of sunshine and precipitation and wide temperature ranges.
For the most part, the two Empordias are dominated by a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa). Empordia also has an alpine climate (Köppen ET/H) both the further inland and higher in elevation one travels. The overall climate trends toward humid subtropical (Köppen classification Cfa) in southern Baix-Empordà, especially along the coastline.
Winters are generally cold in Empordia compared to the rest of the country, with an average low temperature between –7°C and 10°C and an average high between 2°C and 17°C. Summers are mild to warm (average lows between 9°C and 17°C and highs between 19°C and 28°C), and very warm along Baix-Empordà's southern coast, with highs in July and August frequently exceeding 30°C on the aperture's beaches and the resort cities of Port-Vallarte and Cap Sant Luca.
Coastal temperature ranges in the north (between Castelfranc and Barri Antic) are more moderate, with cool winters and mild summers. Most of northwestern Baix-Empordà is classified as a marine oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Meanwhile, the Empordian mountain range is predominantly alpine, with very mild and short summers, and temperatures below zero and heavy snowfall for much of the winter months at higher elevations.
Margheria and Franconia
Lying entirely on the eastern (leeward) side of the Serrado Pacitaliana, Margheria and Franconia have much drier and seasonably warmer climates than their counterparts on the windward, or western, side of the Serrado. Both apertures have mountain ranges on their southern and western frontiers. Franconia is drier than Margheria, its northern neighbour, because it also has mountains (the Transfranconian range) on its boundary with Margheria, and is therefore surrounded by mountains on three sides.
In western Margheria and most of Franconia, it is steppe or semi-arid (Köppen BSh), with hot, dry summers (high temperatures between 27°C and 33°C), and mild winters with the lion's share of annual precipitation, most often in the form of snow or wet snow. As a result of its milder, drier climate, Franconia is home to nearly half of Pacitalia's wine production.
Along the Margherian and Franconian coasts, the dominant climate is Mediterranean (Köppen Csa). In central and northern Margheria, a unique situation exists where the circumstances of the physical environment have resulted in the rare hybrid "continental-Mediterranean climate" (Köppen Csb), with cold and snowy (or dry) winters and warm to hot (and dry) summers.
Beracanto is Pacitalia's hottest and driest aperture. It is, along with Antigonia and Alt-Empordà, one of only three landlocked apertures in the country. However, unlike Antigonia and Alt-Empordà, Beracanto lies on the eastern side of the Serrado, and with no moderating marine influence, the combination means it has high, sometimes unbearable summer temperatures and receives little precipitation. Beracanto is a predominantly desert climate (Köppen BWh) with an average of less than 300mm of precipitation per calendar year. Temperatures above 40°C are by no means uncommon from May through September; as a result, Beracantans tend to flock for more tolerable heat along Pacitalia's coasts during the summer months.
Antigonia is Pacitalia's breadbasket, with a large share of the country's agricultural output, and enjoys a quintessentially low-latitude continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with very warm, dry summers (average high temperatures between 28°C and 36°C), warm winters (average high between 16°C and 24°C), and high levels of precipitation in spring and autumn (similar to monsoons). The lack of cold temperatures means there is no snowpack formation at source during winter and, therefore, no threat of flooding with the start of spring rains.
Sambuca, Pungaria, Amalfia and Capitale
Pacitalia's southwestern mainland varies from tropical-rainforest climate (Köppen Af) in Capitale and much of southern Amalfia, to tropical wet and dry (Köppen Aw) through central and northern Amalfia and into Pungaria. Sambuca is largely humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), a climate region that extends northward into southern Baix-Empordà.
The southwestern mainland receives the highest amount of precipitation in Pacitalia, and its largest cities — Timiocato, Sambuca, Puntafora, Lucifora, Pegrolisia and Rigunanta — are all some of the wettest municipalities in the country. Due to the presence of Pacitalia's island archipelago to the west, most weather systems break up into staggered fragments as they reach the mainland coast, resulting in erratic weather patterns and an abundance of electrical storms, especially during the hot, humid summer. During the summer months, most precipitation falls in the early morning hours; during the winter, it mostly falls later in the evening. Most rainfall occurs in the autumn months (September-November).
The region is characterised by a lack of defined seasons, a situation that is typical of tropical climates. The extremely short "winter" usually lasts from early December to mid-January in the south (and 2-3 weeks longer further north), but high temperatures can still reach 25°C. Summers are humid and average high temperatures are between 32°C and 37°C. Average low temperatures are consistently above 20°C all year, and snowfall is a statistical near-impossibility (with the exception of a disastrous snowstorm in late November 2006).
Capitale is also susceptible to the flow of strong prevailing winds on occasion — the Amarchi hills, east of Timiocato, experience frequent strong gales.
Pomentane, Trasteveria and Provencia
Lying east of the Serrado Pacitaliana, the apertures of Pomentane, Trasteveria and Provencia are drier and more continental than Capitale, Amalfia and Pungaria, which lie at the same latitude. However, they are considered predominantly tropical wet and dry (Köppen Aw) because of their hot summers and pronounced dry season (which generally lasts from November to March). Rainy season is usually May to July, especially in northern Provencia.
Provencia is home to most of Pacitalia's vacation resort developments because of its hot, drier climate. Temperatures in these three apertures tend to be consistent all year round, with average high temperatures arbitrarily ranging between 23°C and 35°C (and no seasonal distinction).
One anomaly in this region is the northwestern tip of the Provencian peninsula, which is generally more semi-arid than tropical.
Rossopunia, Palatinia and Dossavora
Pacitalia's island archipelago has diverse climate conditions, with notable tropical monsoon,
tropical wet and dry, tropical-rainforest, humid subtropical and Mediterranean climate regions (Köppen Am, Aw, Af, Cfa and Csb). For the most part, the islands are uniformly hot and humid and experience significant amounts of precipitation during a "rainy season" (though not as much as the southwestern part of Pacitalia's mainland).
Palatinia and Dossavora tend to receive most of their precipitation in a rainy season that lasts from August to November. The air in this region is at its least humid and most pleasant from April to June. Temperatures are largely uniform throughout the year (around 24°C to 34°C), with cooler temperatures (as low as 19°C) during the rainy season. Rossopunia, the northernmost and most populated of the three island apertures, is also the most universally pleasant, with a largely Mediterranean climate, characterised by very warm summers and mild (but not cool) winters.
Biodiversity and protection
Pacitalia is one of Atlantian Oceania's megadiverse nations. With over 250,000 species of faunæ and floræ, the country accounts for a large portion of the world's biodiversity. Pacitalia is home to 1,650 species of fish and other marine life, to 840 species of amphibians and to 450 species of mammals. The blue fox (Canus vulpazuli) is the most famous mammal species unique to Pacitalia. The country also hosts an insurmountable number of plant species, at over 33,000. Approximately 2,200 species are protected by the Pacitalian government.
Deforestation has slowed in Pacitalia as the economy has shifted away from unsustainable practices and reliance on timbre and other forestry products.
Despite its otherwise excellent record of environmental stewardship and protection, Pacitalia did not have a national parks and reserves system until 2010. The new parks and reserves system protects 552,082 km2 (or 17.1 percent, just over one-sixth of Pacitalia's land area).
Current environmental issues for Pacitalia include minor deforestation caused by uranium mining, coal-burning utilities and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity, and ocean waters receiving slight contamination from agricultural activities.
There are numerous natural hazards which Pacitalia has faced and may face again in the future including earthquakes, tidal waves, brush fires in the interior, hurricanes, heavy winds, thunderstorms in the southern belt, volcanic eruptions, volcanic ashflows and soil liquefaction. Many of these natural disasters can have their damage effects minimised, and both the public and private sector have expended significant effort in this area.